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GHK-Cu and Pathogenic Bacteria Studies

jean pierre fumey

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The topic of this article will revolve around the GHK-Cu peptide and the studies done on pathogenic bacteria. If this topic sparks your curiosity, keep reading. Let’s dive right in!

GHK-Cu and the Skin

GHK-Cu is a naturally occurring component of blood that is thought to be pivotal in skin repair. Studies conducted on skin culture suggest collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and other extracellular matrix components, including proteoglycans and chondroitin sulfate, are synthesized and degraded by GHK. Researchers speculate GHK-Cu’s properties on recruiting fibroblasts, immunological cells, and endothelial cells mediate at least some of this impact. This peptide seems to coordinate the repair process by attracting certain cell types to the injury site [i].

Research suggests skin elasticity is enhanced while tightness and firmness are achieved. Scientists hypothesize sun damage, hyperpigmentation, and the visibility of fine lines and wrinkles all seem to be reduced [i]. GHK-Cu’s potential to influence collagen production is thought to be crucial for diminishing the look of scars, stopping hypertrophic healing from occurring, taming rough skin, and restoring the elasticity and firmness of aged skin. Professionals hypothesize these properties of GHK-Cu may be partly mediated by its potential to increase TGF-2 levels [ii]. The peptide presumably influences gene transcription at several levels and through multiple metabolic pathways [iii].

Studies conducted in mice suggest GHK-Cu may speed up recovery from burns by as much as 33%. GHK-Cu seems to promote the development of new blood vessels at the site of damage, in addition to attracting immune cells and fibroblasts [iv]. These results provide a new avenue for enhancing wound care in burn units and expediting recovery since the cauterization impact of burns makes it difficult for the skin to rebuild blood vessels.

GHK-Cu and Pathogenic Bacteria

One of the primary reasons wounds are considered to take so long to heal is that foreign microorganisms have invaded the tissue. Test models with severe burns or impaired immune systems appear to be more vulnerable to bacterial and fungal infections. Researchers speculate that when specific fatty acids are added to GHK-Cu, a powerful antibacterial molecule is produced that is effective against many bacteria and fungi that slow the wound healing process [v].

GHK-Cu has been suggested in investigations on diabetic test models to potentially be more effective than conventional approaches in mitigating diabetic ulcers. Research suggests that compared to control groups, test models with conventional care and those influenced by GHK-Cu appeared to display significantly faster wound closure and lower infection rates [vi]. Test subjects with ischemic open wounds seemed to experience similar outcomes [vii].

GHK-Cu, Brain Activity, and Nervous System Physiology 

It is not well-known how cognitive decline and certain neurological disorders may cause neuronal death. Because of this, developing effective agents to mitigate decline is challenging, and current options have low success rates. However, studies suggest that GHK-Cu may reverse the loss in neuron function at the root of many disorders as organisms age. Several studies have speculated that GHK-Cu may have properties on the central nervous system, including enhanced angiogenesis, nerve outgrowth, and decreased inflammation. There is also some speculation that GHK-Cu may assist in re-establishing a healthy state in damaged systems by resetting aberrant gene expression [viii].

Studies suggest GHK-Cu is abundant in the brain, yet its levels gradually decrease with age. Scientists believe a drop in GHK-Cu with age, rather than introducing new disease processes, is the cause of neurodegeneration. Researchers speculate GHK-Cu may protect nervous system tissues from natural assaults such as gene dysregulation.

Rat studies suggest that GHK-Cu may preserve brain tissue by blocking the cell death pathway known as apoptosis. Following brain bleeds and stroke, the well-known miR-339-59/VEGFA pathway seems activated, mediating this effect. Scientists hypothesize GHK-Cu may alleviate neurological impairments, decrease brain edema, and block neuronal death typically caused by overexpression of miR-339-5p in rat models [ix].

GHK-Cu and Pain

Research suggests that when presented to rat pain models, GHK-Cu appeared to alter behavior. Increased levels of the natural painkiller L-lysine may be responsible for the peptide’s analgesic potential [x]. In similar studies, L-arginine, another analgesic amino acid, has also been hypothesized to have its levels increased by the peptide [xi].

Buy GHK-Cu only if you are a verified professional or active scientist. GHK-Cu for sale online is restricted to usage in research and educational institutes. Biotech Peptides is a great resource for licensed researchers looking to purchase peptides in laboratory settings.

References

[i] L. Pickart, J. M. Vasquez-Soltero, and A. Margolina, “GHK Peptide as a Natural Modulator of Multiple Cellular Pathways in Skin Regeneration,” BioMed Res. Int., vol. 2015, p. 648108, 2015. [BioMed Research International] [ii] A. Gruchlik, E. Chodurek, and Z. Dzierzewicz, “Effect of GLY-HIS-LYS and its copper complex on TGF-β secretion in normal human dermal fibroblasts,” Acta Pol. Pharm., vol. 71, no. 6, pp. 954–958, Dec. 2014. [PubMed] [iii] L. Pickart and A. Margolina, “Regenerative and Protective Actions of the GHK-Cu Peptide in the Light of the New Gene Data,” Int. J. Mol. Sci., vol. 19, no. 7, Jul. 2018. [PubMed] [iv] X. Wang et al., “GHK-Cu-liposomes accelerate scald wound healing in mice by promoting cell proliferation and angiogenesis,” Wound Repair Regen. Off. Publ. Wound Heal. Soc. Eur. Tissue Repair Soc., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 270–278, 2017. [PubMed] [v] M. Kukowska, M. Kukowska-Kaszuba, and K. Dzierzbicka, “In vitro studies of antimicrobial activity of Gly-His-Lys conjugates as potential and promising candidates for therapeutics in skin and tissue infections,” Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 542–546, Feb. 2015. [Science Direct] [vi] G. D. Mulder et al., “Enhanced healing of ulcers in patients with diabetes by topical treatment with glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine copper,” Wound Repair Regen. Off. Publ. Wound Heal. Soc. Eur. Tissue Repair Soc., vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 259–269, Oct. 1994. [PubMed] [vii] S. O. Canapp et al., “The effect of topical tripeptide-copper complex on healing of ischemic open wounds,” Vet. Surg. VS, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 515–523, Dec. 2003. [PubMed] [viii] L. Pickart, J. M. Vasquez-Soltero, and A. Margolina, “The Effect of the Human Peptide GHK on Gene Expression Relevant to Nervous System Function and Cognitive Decline,” Brain Sci., vol. 7, no. 2, Feb. 2017. [PubMed] [ix] H. Zhang, Y. Wang, and Z. He, “Glycine-Histidine-Lysine (GHK) Alleviates Neuronal Apoptosis Due to Intracerebral Hemorrhage via the miR-339-5p/VEGFA Pathway,” Front. Neurosci., vol. 12, p. 644, 2018. [PubMed] [x] L. А. Sever’yanova and M. E. Dolgintsev, “Effects of Tripeptide Gly-His-Lys in Pain-Induced Aggressive-Defensive Behavior in Rats,” Bull. Exp. Biol. Med., vol. 164, no. 2, pp. 140–143, Dec. 2017. [Springer] [xii] L. А. Sever’yanova and D. V. Plotnikov, “Binding of Glyprolines to L-Arginine Inverts Its Analgesic and Antiagressogenic Effects,” Bull. Exp. Biol. Med., vol. 165, no. 5, pp. 621–624, Sep. 2018. [PubMed]

 

Jean-Pierre is a polyglot communication specialist, freelance journalist, and writer for startup.info with over two decades of experience in media and public relations. He creates engaging content, manages communication campaigns, and attends conferences to stay up-to-date with the latest trends. He brings his wealth of experience and expertise to provide insightful analysis and engaging content for startup.info's audience.

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